The U.S. Department of Education's Office for Civil Rights enforces, among other statutes, Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972.
TITLE IX STATES:
No person in the United States shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any education program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance.
The Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 prohibits sex discrimination in the following areas:
SEX-BASED HARASSMENT/SEXUAL HARASSMENT (INCLUDING SEXUAL VIOLENCE)
Unwelcome conduct of a sexual nature
RECRUITMENT, ADMISSIONS, AND COUNSELING
Recruitment materials, admission forms, class or career selection materials, admission of students
Counseling services, brochures, materials
Procedures and practices for awarding financial assistance to students
Requires nondiscriminatory participation based on student interests and abilities
Equal opportunities (equipment, supplies, training facilities, recruitment, support services, etc.)
MARITAL OR FAMILY STATUS, PREGNANT OR PARENTING STUDENTS
Different treatment on the basis of sex based on parental, family, or marital status
Exclusion in educational programs, or activities based on pregnancy, childbirth, false pregnancy
Lactating students must be provided reasonable accommodations
Imposing consequences based on sex, gender identity, failing to conform to stereotypical binary expectations, etc.
SCHOOLS, CLASSES, AND EXTRACURRICULAR ACTIVITIES
Providing education programs or activities separately on the basis of sex
Requiring or refusing participation by students on the basis of sex
Note: The following are exceptions:
Contact sports in physical education
Classes or portions of classes... that deal primarily with human sexuality
Non-vocational classes and extracurricular activities within a coeducational... school if certain criteria are met